Dilantin Indication:

For the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor, temporal lobe) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery.

Dilantin Mechanism Of Action:

Dilantin acts on sodium channels on the neuronal cell membrane, limiting the spread of seizure activity and reducing seizure propagation. By promoting sodium efflux from neurons, phenytoin tends to stabilize the threshold against hyperexcitability caused by excessive stimulation or environmental changes capable of reducing membrane sodium gradient. This includes the reduction of post-tetanic potentiation at synapses. Loss of post-tetanic potentiation prevents cortical seizure foci from detonating adjacent cortical areas.

Dilantin Drug Interactions:

Not Available

Dilantin Food Interactions:

Avoid alcohol.
Take with food.
Do not take calcium, aluminum, magnesium or Iron supplements within 2 hours of taking this medication.

Dilantin Generic Name:

Synonyms:

  • 5,5-Dwufenylohydantoina
  • Difenilhidantoina [Spanish]
  • Diphenylhydantoine [French]
  • Diphenylan Sodium
  • Diphenylhydantoin
  • Diphenylhydatanoin
  • DPH
  • Fenitoina [INN-Spanish]
  • Phenytoin Sodium
  • Phenytoine
  • Phenytoine [INN-French]
  • Phenytoinum [INN-Latin]
  • 5,5-diphenylhydantoin
  • Dihydantoin

Drug Type:

Small Molecule; Approved

Absorption:

Bioavailability 70-100% oral, 24.4% for rectal and intravenous administration. Rapid rate of absorption with peak blood concentration expected in 1½ to 3 hours.

Toxicity (Overdose):

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 150 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 1635 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include coma, difficulty in pronouncing words correctly, involuntary eye movement, lack of muscle coordination, low blood pressure, nausea, sluggishness, slurred speech, tremors, and vomiting.

Protein Binding:

Highly protein bound

Biotransformation:

Primarily hepatic

Half Life:

22 hours (range of 7 to 42 hours)

Dosage Forms of Dilantin:

Liquid Intravenous
Tablet Oral
Suspension Oral
Capsule Oral
Liquid Intramuscular
Solution Intramuscular

Chemical IUPAC Name:

5,5-di(phenyl)imidazolidine-2,4-dione

Organisms Affected:

Humans and other mammals

Dilantin to general, pharmacology

General, pharmacology..
General health