A mixture of isomers used as contrast medium, mainly for brain and spinal cord visualization. Pantopaque is a myelographic oil-ester (U.S. Patent 2,348,231). Pantopaque, which was never shown to be safe, was initially introduced for use in small amounts (1-2cc) for locating spinal tumors. It next appeared on the world scene for high volume (12-15cc), routine use, in diagnosing disc herniations. A number of clinicians have published on the dangers of oil myelography. In 1942 Van Wagenen (a neurosurgical colleague of Warrens, at the University of Rochester) identified Pantopaque as causing chemical meningitis in 30 patients where "space-displacing masses within the spinal canal were suspected".