Diamox

One of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)

Medicinal name:
  • 12 HR Acetazolamide 500 MG Extended Release Oral Capsule [Diamox]

Diamox - Pharmacology:

The anticonvulsant activity of Diamox may depend on a direct inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the CNS, which decreases carbon dioxide tension in the pulmonary alveoli, thus increasing arterial oxygen tension. The diuretic effect depends on the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase, causing a reduction in the availability of hydrogen ions for active transport in the renal tubule lumen. This leads to alkaline urine and an increase in the excretion of bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and water.

Diamox for patients

Adverse reactions common to all sulfonamide derivatives may occur: anaphylaxis, fever, rash (including erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), crystalluria, renal calculus, bone marrow depression, thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, and agranulocytosis. Caution is advised for early detection of such reactions and the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

In patients with pulmonary obstruction or emphysema where alveolar ventilation may be impaired, DIAMOX, which may precipitate or aggravate acidosis, should be used with caution.

Gradual ascent is desirable to try to avoid acute mountain sickness. If rapid ascent is undertaken and DIAMOX is used, it should be noted that such use does not obviate the need for prompt descent if severe forms of high altitude sickness occur, ie, high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) or high altitude cerebral edema.

Caution is advised for patients receiving concomitant high-dose aspirin and DIAMOX, as anorexia, tachypnea, lethargy, metabolic acidosis, coma, and death have been reported.

Both increases and decreases in blood glucose levels have been described in patients treated with acetazolamide. This should be taken into consideration in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus.

Diamox treatment may cause electrolyte imbalances, including hyponatremia and hypokalemia, as well as metabolic acidosis. Therefore, periodic monitoring of serum electrolytes is recommended. Particular caution is recommended in patients with conditions that are associated with, or predispose a patient to, electrolyte and acid/base imbalances, such as patients with impaired renal function (including elderly patients), patients with diabetes mellitus, and patients with impaired alveolar ventilation.

Some adverse reactions to acetazolamide, such as drowsiness, fatigue, and myopia, may impair the ability to drive and operate machinery.

Diamox Interactions

DIAMOX®. modifies phenytoin metabolism with increased serum levels of phenytoin. This may increase or enhance the occurrence of osteomalacia in some patients receiving chronic phenytoin therapy. Caution is advised in patients receiving chronic concomitant therapy.

By decreasing the gastrointestinal absorption of primidone, DIAMOX may decrease serum concentrations of primidone and its metabolites, with a consequent possible decrease in anticonvulsant effect. Caution is advised when beginning, discontinuing, or changing the dose of DIAMOX in patients receiving primidone.

Because of possible additive effects with other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, concomitant use is not advisable.

Diamox may increase the effects of other folic acid antagonists.

Diamox may increase or decrease blood glucose levels. Consideration should be taken in patients being treated with antidiabetic agents.

Diamox decreases urinary excretion of amphetamine and may enhance the magnitude and duration of their effect.

Diamox reduces urinary excretion of quinidine and may enhance its effect.

Diamox may prevent the urinary antiseptic effect of methenamine.

Diamox increases lithium excretion and the lithium may be decreased.

Diamox and sodium bicarbonate used concurrently increases the risk of renal calculus formation.

Diamox may elevate cyclosporine levels.

Diamox Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to acetazolamide or any excipients in the formulation. Since acetazolamide is a sulfonamide derivative, cross sensitivity between acetazolamide, sulfonamides and other sulfonamide derivatives is possible.

DIAMOX therapy is contraindicated in situations in which sodium and/or potassium blood serum levels are depressed, in cases of marked kidney and liver disease or dysfunction, in suprarenal gland failure, and in hyperchloremic acidosis. It is contraindicated in patients with cirrhosis because of the risk of development of hepatic encephalopathy.

Long-term administration of DIAMOX is contraindicated in patients with chronic noncongestive angle-closure glaucoma since it may permit organic closure of the angle to occur while the worsening glaucoma is masked by lowered intraocular pressure.

Manufacturers name:

  • REMEDYREPACK INC
  • Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Inc

Generic name, Overdose, Half Life Diamox, Food Interactions, Chemical, etc..

Diamox see also Saw Palmetto

Brand Names containing Acetazolamide
General health

Chemical structure:
N S N N S O O N O H H H H H H C4H6N4O3S2 2D chemical structure C4H6N4O3S2 SVG | 2D structure chemical names, chemical properties, classification C4H6N4O3S2