For management of melanoma, resistant chronic myelocytic leukemia, and recurrent, metastatic, or inoperable carcinoma of the ovary and Sickle-cell anemia.
Hydrea Mechanism Of Action:
Hydrea is converted to a free radical nitroxide (NO) in vivo, and transported by diffusion into cells where it quenches the tyrosyl free radical at the active site of the M2 protein subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, inactivating the enzyme. The entire replicase complex, including ribonucleotide reductase, is inactivated and DNA synthesis is selectively inhibited, producing cell death in S phase and synchronization of the fraction of cells that survive. Repair of DNA damaged by chemicals or irradiation is also inhibited by hydroxyurea, offering potential synergy between hydroxyurea and radiation or alkylating agents. Hydrea also increases the level of fetal hemoglobin, leading to a reduction in the incidence of vasoocclusive crises in sickle cell anemia. Levels of fetal hemoglobin increase in response to activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) by hydroxyurea-derived NO.
Oral, mouse: LD50 = 7330 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 5760 mg/kg
Teratogenicity: Teratogenic effects have occurred in experimental animals.Hydroxyurea use during a small number of human pregnancies has been reported. Adverse effects have not been observed in any of the exposed newborns.
Reproductive Effects: Adverse reproductive effects have occurred in experimental animals.
Mutagenicity: Mutagenic effects have occurred in experimental animals.Mutagenic effects have occurred in humans.