Anise is an herbaceous annual plant growing to 3 ft (0.9 m) or more tall. The leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 3⁄8–2 in (1–5 cm) long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous small leaflets. The flowers are white, approximately 1⁄8 inch (3 mm) in diameter, produced in dense umbels. The fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp. Anise, also called Aniseed or Sweet Cumin belongs to the family Apiaceae and is native to the eastern Mediterranean region
Ashwagandha known commonly as Indian Ginseng, Poison Gooseberry or Winter Cherry, is a plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family. This species is a short, tender perennial shrub growing 35–75 cm (14–30 in) tall. Tomentose branches extend radially from a central stem. Leaves are dull green, elliptic, usually up to 10–12 cm long. The flowers are small, green and bell-shaped. The ripe fruit is orange-red. Is cultivated in many of the drier regions of India, also found in Nepal, China and Yemen.
Barrenwort (Bishop's Hat, Fairy Wings, Horny Goat Weed, or Yin Yang Huo) is a species of flowering plant in the family Berberidaceae, native to China, Japan and Korea. It is a deciduous perennial growing to 30 cm (12 in), with bright red stems with green heart-shaped leaves (copper-tinged when young) which are slightly hairy on the bottom. In spring it produces pink, white, yellow or purple long-spurred flowers.
Nepeta Cataria, commonly known as Catnip, Catswort, or Catmint, is a species of the genus Nepeta in the family Lamiaceae, native to southern and eastern Europe, the Middle East, central Asia, and parts of China. It is a short-lived herbaceous perennial, growing 50–100 cm (20–39 in) tall and wide. The small bilabiate flowers can be white and finely spotted with pale purple or pink. They are showy and fragrant. The names Catnip and Catmint are derived from the intense attraction most cats have towards them.
Erythroxylum Catuaba is a evergreen tree that grows up to 8 m and produces yellow and orange flowers and small, dark yellow, oval-shaped, inedible fruit. It comes from the northern part of Brazil in Amazonas, Para, Pernambuco, Bahia, Maranhao, and Alagoas, nowadays grows also in South America. Also known as Chuchuhuasha, Tatuaba, Piratancara, Catagua and Caramuru.
Cordyceps - Ophiocordyceps Sinensis - is a fungus that parasitizes larvae of ghost moths and produces a fruiting body valued as an herbal remedy found in mountainous regions of India, Nepal and Tibet. The fungus germinates in the living larva, kills and mummifies it, and then the stalk-like fruiting body emerges from the corpse. It is known in English colloquially as Caterpillar Fungus, or as Yartsa Gunbu or Dōng Chong Xià Cao (冬虫夏草). Of the various entomopathogenic fungi, Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one tha
Echinacea Angustifolia (Narrow-leaved Purple Coneflower or Blacksamson Echinacea) is a North American plant species in sunflower family. It is widespread across much of the Great Plains of central Canada and the central United States. Echinacea is a perennial herb up to 40 to 70 centimetres (16 to 28 in) tall with spindle-shaped taproots that are often branched. The stems and leaves are moderately to densely hairy. The plant produces flower heads one per side branch, each at the end of a long peduncle. Each
Eleutherococcus Senticosus is a species of small, woody shrub in the family Araliaceae native to Northeastern Asia. It is often colloquially referred to as Siberian Ginseng, Eleuthero or Ciwujia. E. senticosus has a history of use in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as Cì Wǔ Jiā (刺五加). The herb grows in mixed and coniferous mountain forests, forming low undergrowth or is found in groups in thickets and edges. Its native habitat is East Asia, China, Japan, and Russia. Eleuthero is a deciduous s
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) is a species of Hibiscus native to West Africa, used for the production of bast fibre and as an infusion, in which it may be known as carcade. It is an annual or perennial herb or woody-based subshrub, growing to 2–2.5 m (7–8 ft) tall. The leaves are deeply three- to five-lobed, 8–15 cm (3–6 in) long, arranged alternately on the stems. The flowers are 8–10 cm (3–4 in) in diameter, white to pale yellow with a dark red spot at the base of each petal, and have a stout fleshy calyx
Hoodia gordonii is a leafless spiny succulent plant with medicinal properties. It grows naturally in South Africa and Namibia. The species became internationally known and threatened by collectors, therefore Hoodia gordonii is a protected plant which may only be wild-harvested by individuals and the few companies who have been granted a license. The flowers smell like rotten meat and are pollinated mainly by flies. The indigenous San people (Bushmen) of the Namib desert call this plant ǁhoba (the initial so
Hops are the flowers (also called Seed Cones or Strobiles) of the Hop, plant Humulus lupulus. The hop plant Hop is a species of flowering plant in the Cannabaceae family, native to Europe, western Asia and North America. It is a dioecious, perennial, herbaceous climbing plant which sends up new shoots in early spring and dies back to a cold-hardy rhizome in autumn.
Lobelia inflata (Indian Tobacco, Puke Weed) is a species of Lobelia native to eastern North America, from southeastern Canada south through the eastern United States to Alabama and west to Kansas. Lobelia inflata is an annual or biennial herbaceous plant growing to 15–100 cm (5.9–39.4 in) tall, with stems covered in tiny hairs. Its leaves are usually about 8 cm (3.1 in) long, and are ovate and toothed. It has violet flowers that are tinted yellow on the inside, and usually appear in mid-summer and continue
Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is an herbaceous biennial plant of the crucifer family native to the high Andes of Peru. It was found at the Meseta of BomBom close to Junin Lake in the Andes. It is grown for its fleshy hypocotyl (a fused hypocotyl and taproot), which is used as a root vegetable and a medicinal herb. Its Spanish and Quechua names include Maca-maca, Maino, Ayak Chichira, and Ayak Willku. Maca is mainly grown for the nutritional and health value of its root. The majority of harvested maca is dried.
Grifola frondosa is a polypore mushroom that grows in clusters at the base of trees, particularly oaks. Like the sulphur shelf mushroom, G. frondosa is a perennial fungus that often grows in the same place for a number of years in succession. The mushroom is commonly known among English speakers as Hen of the woods, Ram's head and Sheep's head. It is typically found in late summer to early autumn. The fungus is native to the northeastern part of Japan and North America, and is prized in traditional Chinese
Ptychopetalum is a genus of two species of flowering plants in the family Olacaceae, native to the Amazon rainforest. The species are shrubs or small trees growing to about 14 feet in height. Its leaves are short-petioled, up to 3 inches in length and 2 inches in breadth light green on upper surface, dark brown on lower surface. The inflorescences consist of short axillary racemes of 4 to 6 flowers each. The root is strongly tough and fibrous, internally light brown with thin bark and broad wood, has a fain
The Oat (Avena sativa), is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name. Genetic evidence shows the ancestral forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Domesticated oats appear relatively late, and far from the Near East, in Bronze Age Europe. Oats are one of the most endowed grains when it comes to minerals. They are certainly among the top nutrient-rich grains in the world.
Papaver Rhoeas (common names include Common Poppy, Corn Poppy, Corn Rose, Field Poppy, Flanders Poppy, Red Poppy, Red Weed, Coquelicot) is an annual herbaceous species of flowering plant in the poppy family, Papaveraceae. This poppy is notable as an agricultural weed. It grows up to about 70 cm in height. The flowers are large and showy, 50 to 100mm across, with four petals that are vivid red, most commonly with a black spot at their base. Its native range includes West Asia, North Africa and Europe.
Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian Lotus, Sacred Lotus, Bean of India, or simply Lotus, is one of two species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. This plant is an aquatic perennial. Under favorable circumstances its seeds may remain viable for many years, with the oldest recorded lotus germination being from that of seeds 1,300 years old recovered from a dry lakebed in northeastern China. Native to Tropical Asia and Queensland, Australia, it is commonly cultivated in water gardens. It is also
Cinchona officinalis is a South American tree in the Rubiaceae family. It is native to wet montane forests in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, between 1600–2700 meters above sea level. Cinchona officinalis is a shrub or tree with rugose bark and branchlets covered in minute hairs. English names: Quinine, Red Cinchona, Cinchona Bark, Jesuit’s Bark, loxa Bark, Jesuit’s Powder, Countess Powder, Peruvian bark. Spanish names: Quina, Cascarilla, Cargua Cargua, Corteza Coja. Cinchona officinalis is a medicinal
Trifolium pratense, the Red Clover, is a herbaceous species of flowering plant in the bean family Fabaceae, native to Europe, Western Asia and northwest Africa, but planted and naturalised in many other regions. It is a herbaceous, short-lived perennial plant, variable in size, growing to 20–80 cm tall. The leaves are alternate, trifoliate (with three leaflets), each leaflet 15–30 mm long and 8–15 mm broad, green with a characteristic pale crescent in the outer half of the leaf; the petiole is 1–4 cm long,
The Lingzhi mushroom or Reishi mushroom (traditional Chinese: 靈芝) is a specie of the genus Ganoderma. G. lingzhi enjoys special veneration in East Asia, where it has been used as a medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 2,000 years, making it one of the oldest mushrooms known to have been used medicinally. Lingzhi is listed in the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium. Lingzhi is a polypore mushroom that is soft (when fresh), corky, and flat, with a conspicuous r
Sarsaparilla has a stout, flexuous and square stem, with a few hooked prickles above. Leaves unarmed, elliptical-ovate, cuspidate, abruptly contracted at each end; three strong veins, two lateral smaller secondary ones; underside glaucous, 3 inches diameter, on short margined petioles, with two long tendrils at their bases. Flowers yellowish-white, appearing May to August, in small thin umbels of three or four red or black berries, three-seeded.
Serenoa repens, commonly known as Saw Palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa. It is a small palm, growing to a maximum height of around 7–10 ft (2–3 m). It is endemic to the lowlands and savanna scrubs of the subtropical southeastern United States, most commonly along the south Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plains. Saw Palmetto is a fan palm, with the leaves that have a bare petiole terminating in a rounded fan of about 20 leaflets. The flowers are yellowish-white, the fruit is
Schisandra chinensis (五味子) is a deciduous woody vine native to forests of Northern China and the Russian Far East. The plant likes some shade with moist, well-drained soil. The species itself is dioecious, thus flowers on a female plant will only produce fruit when fertilized with pollen from a male plant. Its berries are used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs.
Asparagus racemosus (Satavar, Shatavari, or Shatamull) is a species of asparagus common throughout Nepal, Sri Lanka, India and the Himalayas. It grows one to two metres tall and prefers to take root in gravelly, rocky soils high up in piedmont plains, at 1,300–1,400 metres elevation. Shatawari has different names in the different Indian languages, such as Shatuli, Vrishya and other terms. In Nepal it is called Kurilo. Asparagus racemosus is an important plant in traditional medicine in tropical and subtropi
The Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, which is cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries. It is considered a medicinal mushroom in some forms of traditional medicine. It is also commonly called "Sawtooth oak mushroom", "Black forest mushroom", "Black mushroom", "Golden oak mushroom", or "Oakwood mushroom". Shiitake grow in groups on the decaying wood of deciduous trees, particularly shii, chestnut, oak, maple, beech, sweetgum, poplar, hornbeam, ironwood, mulberry,
Urtica dioica, often called Common Nettle or Stinging Nettle, is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in the family Urticaceae. It is native to Europe, Asia, northern Africa, and western North America, and introduced elsewhere. The species is divided into six subspecies, five of which have many hollow stinging hairs called trichomes on the leaves and stems, which act like hypodermic needles, injecting histamine and other chemicals that produce a stinging sensation when contacted by humans and other animal
Spearmint, or spear mint (Mentha spicata) (also known as Mentha viridis) is a species of mint native to much of Europe and Asia (Middle East, Himalayas, China etc.), and naturalized in parts of northern and western Africa, North America, and South America, as well as various oceanic islands. It is a herbaceous, rhizomatous, perennial plant growing 30–100 cm tall, with variably hairless to hairy stems and foliage, and a wide-spreading fleshy underground rhizome. The leaves are 5–9 cm long and 1.5–3 cm broad,
Hebanthe eriantha (Pfaffia paniculata, Suma, or Brazilian ginseng) is a species of plant in the Amaranthaceae family. Suma is a large, rambling, shrubby ground vine with an intricate, deep, and extensive root system. The root of this rambling ground vine found in South America is used traditionally as a medicine and tonic. Nicknamed "para tudo" which means "for all," suma is a traditional herbal medicine.
Tribulus terrestris is an annual plant in the caltrop family (Zygophyllaceae) widely distributed around the world, that is adapted to grow in dry climate locations in which few other plants can survive. Like many weedy species, this plant has many common names, including Goat's-head, Bindii, Bullhead, Burra gokharu, Bhakhdi, Caltrop, Small caltrops, Cat's-head, Devil's eyelashes, Devil's-thorn, Devil's-weed, Puncture vine, Puncturevine and Tackweed. The stems radiate from the crown to a diameter of about 10
Stachys officinalis is commonly known as common Hedgenettle, Betony, Purple betony, Wood betony, Bishopwort, or Bishop's wort. Stachys officinalis is a perennial grassland herb growing to 30 to 60 cm (1 to 2 ft) tall. Its leaves are stalked on upright stems, narrowly oval, with a heart-shaped base, with a somewhat wrinkled texture and toothed margins. It flowers in mid summer from July to September, and is found in dry grassland, meadows and open woods in most of Europe, western Asia and North Africa.
Yerba mate is a species of the holly family (Aquifoliaceae), with the botanical name Ilex paraguariensis A. Yerba mate is widely known as the source of the beverage called mate. It is traditionally consumed in central and southern regions of South America. Yerba mate begins as a shrub and then matures to a tree and can grow up to 15 metres (49 ft) tall. The leaves are evergreen with a serrated margin. The flowers are small, greenish-white, with four petals. The fruit is a red drupe 4–6 millimetres (0.16–0.2
Pausinystalia johimbe, (Rubiaceae), common name Yohimbe, is one of five Pausinystalia evergreen species growing in West and Central Africa in lowland forests. The tree grows about 30m tall, with a straight bole that is rarely larger that 50-60 cm in diameter. The bark is grey to reddish-brown, with longitudinal fissures, easy to peel and bitter-tasting. The inner bark is pinkish and fibrous. The sapwood is yellowish and the heartwood is ochre-yellow; the wood is fine-grained and relatively dense and moderat